sahara desertification

British military forces were withdrawn in 1954. After its capture by British troops in 1898, the Sudan became an Anglo-Egyptian condominium. In 1912, Italy captured parts of what was to be named Libya from the Ottomans. “The Sahara is not advancing, but fluctuating like waves on the ocean,” says researcher Stefanie Herrmann from the Office of Arid Land Studies at the University of Arizona, Tucson. As Wright pored the archaeological and environmental data (mostly sediment cores and pollen records, all dated to the same time period), he noticed what seemed like a pattern.

[58] The Kiffian people were tall, standing over six feet in height. “But if it starts to rain and vegetation returns, what do you call it?” Is the land still desertified? The cheetah avoids the sun from April to October, seeking the shelter of shrubs such as balanites and acacias. Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Life on Earth. The Garamantes' civilization eventually collapsed after they had depleted available water in the aquifers and could no longer sustain the effort to extend the tunnels further into the mountains.[74].

To the tourist it is a spectacular mountain range between Kwa Zulu Natal of South Africa and the inland mountain kingdom […] More, Victoria Falls: One Of The Greatest Places to Visit When Touring Southern Africa For any traveller coming to the Southern tip of the African continent, there is a smorgasbord of African sights and sounds to be seen and heard. The Sahara Desert is located in the northern portion of Africa and covers over 3,500,000 square miles (9,000,000 sq km) or roughly 10% of the continent.

The vegetation index, “narrows the places to look for desertification,” says Prince, and that is a vast improvement over “pin pricks in a map.”, Rainfall records compared to satellite vegetation measurements since 1981 show reduced rainfall and vegetation cover during the severe droughts in the Sahel during the 1980s (blue line). Photographs courtesy USGS and USAID.). Slowly you’ll degrade the landscape, switching from desert to vegetation. [29] The end of the glacial period brought more rain to the Sahara, from about 8000 BCE to 6000 BCE, perhaps because of low pressure areas over the collapsing ice sheets to the north. Powell, E.C.

Other mammals include the gerbil, sand fox, and Cape hare. Africa is the continent most affected by desertification, and one of the most obvious natural borders on the landmass is the southern edge of the Sahara desert. Prince, S. (2004). “The data set provides an essential 24-year record of vegetation dynamics that enables us to detect areas where degradation is taking place and areas of desertification,” says Prince. [45], The Saharan flora comprises around 2800 species of vascular plants. A dust plume from the Sahara Desert is making its way across the globe to the southern United States, and it’s so big it can be seen from space. [30] Once the ice sheets were gone, the northern Sahara dried out. The body was estimated to date from about 7500 BP. Centralized states thus surrounded the desert on the north and east; it remained outside the control of these states. All of these conditions do suppress the ability of the land to support plant growth. Trans-Saharan Africa in World History, Ch. However, according to the results obtained by this team, the migrations would have occurred 8,000 years ago … in the middle of the period known as the “Green Sahara”. (Graph adapted from Anyamba and Tucker, 2005. 10,000 years ago, this iconic desert was unrecognizable. The desert is thought to be about 2-3 million years old, with some estimates as high as 7 million years old. Nicholson, S. (2000). To the north, the Sahara skirts the Mediterranean Sea in Egypt and portions of Libya, but in Cyrenaica and the Maghreb, the Sahara borders the Mediterranean forest, woodland, and scrub eco-regions of northern Africa, all of which have a Mediterranean climate characterized by hot summers and cool and rainy winters. The theory states that the formation of the Sahara began about 250 million years ago. “In East Asia, there are well-established theories about how Neolithic populations have changed the landscape so deeply that monsoons have stopped penetrating far into the land,” he explains.

[41], In the West Saharan montane xeric woodlands, several volcanic highlands provide a cooler, moister environment that supports Saharo-Mediterranean woodlands and shrublands. [53], People lived on the edge of the desert thousands of years ago,[54] since the end of the last glacial period. The United Nations Convention (UNC) says that about six million Sahelian citizens would have to give up the desertified zones of sub-Saharan Africa for North Africa and Europe between 1997 and 2020.

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